Current state of the art and future of myectomy
Surgical relief of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO) in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) requires more than septal myectomy. The procedure is currently the gold standard for all symptomatic HCM patients except those with comorbidities. The operation requires an individualized approach to restore the sophisticated functions of the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) without injury to the surrounding vital structures. The procedure should be tailored to deal with all the varied components of the obstruction including fibrous trigones, accessory tissues, and papillary muscle fusion. Preoperative multimodality imaging and numerical modeling combined with intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) are essential to define existing anomalies as well as assess the adequacy of the repair. The mitral valve can be conserved in virtually all patients. The operation can be conducted with very low mortality and morbidity with predictable good outcomes both in the short and long term. Nevertheless, surgical relief of LVOTO is still grossly underused.