Endovascular total arch replacement techniques and early results
During the last 20 years, a clear shift has been observed towards thoracic endovascular aortic repair for different aortic pathologies. However, total endovascular repair of the aortic arch remains technically demanding. Simultaneous perfusion of all supra-aortic arteries without longer cerebral ischemia time, whilst trying to avoid cerebral embolization, labels endovascular aortic arch repair with highest level of technical difficulty and surgical expertise. The aim of this article is to present an overview of the current technical options for endovascular aortic arch repair and their early results. Currently, early results are reported from four endovascular arch replacement techniques: hybrid repair, total endovascular approach, chimney grafts and in-situ fenestration. The early results of these different arch replacement techniques are promising, especially the total arch replacement with custom-made fenestrated or branched stent-grafts. Long-term results are unknown, and larger series results and comparative studies are needed to determine safety and efficacy.