Aortic valve endocarditis complicated by proximal false aneurysm
Background: Aortic valve endocarditis remains a life-threatening condition, especially in cases of periannular complications. Aorto-ventricular discontinuity associated with proximal false aneurysm represents a more severe picture secondary to an extensive tissue disruption and is usually associated with prosthetic valve infection. Complex surgical repair is required in these cases and continues to be associated with high mortality and morbidity rates.
Methods: We retrieved information for 32 patients undergoing operation for infective aortic valve/ prosthesis endocarditis complicated by pseudoaneurysm arising from aorto-ventricular discontinuity. Patients were relatively young, mostly male and most of them had a prior cardiac operation. Aortic root replacement with valve graft conduit was performed in all cases; it was associated with other procedures in seven patients: CABG (n=2), MV surgery (n=3), MV surgery + CABG (n=1) and pulmonary valve replacement (n=1). We reported and analysed patient outcomes at early and mid-term follow-up.
Results: Pre-discharge mortality was 22% (n=7). The postoperative course was complicated in 24 (75%) cases. Eighteen patients (56%) sustained low cardiac output resulting in multiple organ failure syndrome and death in five cases. One patient (3%) experienced a major neurologic deficit with a permanent cerebral stroke. Acute kidney injury complicated the course in 12 cases (37%), continuous renal replacement therapy was necessary in four patients (12%). Overall survival and freedom from endocarditis and reoperation at 5-years was 59% and 89%, respectively.
Conclusions: Patients with complicated aortic valve endocarditis presented generally in a poor preoperative state. Surgical treatment poses a non-negligible risk of postoperative mortality and morbidity but provides an acceptable survival rate and a satisfactory recovery at mid-term.