Conduction disorders after aortic valve replacement with rapid-deployment bioprostheses: early occurrence and one-year evolution
Background: Rapid-deployment bioprostheses represent one of the newest aortic valve substitutes introduced into clinical practice. The aim of this retrospective single-center study was to evaluate the occurrence of conduction disorders (CDs) after rapid-deployment aortic valve implantation at discharge and at 1-year follow-up, and to identify risk factors for CDs and permanent pace-maker implantation (PPI).
Methods: All patients who reached 1-year follow-up after isolated or combined aortic valve replacement (AVR) with rapid-deployment bioprostheses (Intuity Elite, Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA) at our institution were included in this study. Standard 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) were recorded before the procedure (within 24 hours), after the procedure as soon as the patient was moved to the intensive care unit (ICU), every day during in-hospital stay and at 1-year follow-up. The primary end-point was the incidence of postoperative CDs at discharge and at 1-year follow up. Patients were divided in two groups: those who developed the primary endpoint (Group CD) and those who didn’t (Group Non-CD).
Results: A total of 98 consecutive patients were included in the study. At discharge, the primary endpoint occurred in 40 patients (40.8%). In particular, new CDs and PPI occurred in 33 (33.7%) and in 7 (7.1%) patients, respectively. Valve size was the only independent predictor of primary endpoint at discharge. At 1-year, 30 patients (31.3%) presented with CDs or pacemaker-induced rhythm. In particular, in 25 patients of Group CD (64.1%), 1-year follow-up ECG revealed the persistence of the same CD as at discharge or pacemaker-induced rhythm, while 14 patients (35.9%) showed recovery of their CD. Age and prosthesis size were identified as independent predictors of CDs/pacemaker-induced rhythm at 1-year follow-up.
Conclusions: According to our data, nearly 40% of patients develop a new CD after rapid-deployment aortic valve implantation. Of these, one third recover after one year. Bioprosthesis size and age were identified as independent risk factors for occurrence of CD after surgery.