Results of open thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair
Background: Open surgical repair of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (TAAAs) enables the effective replacement of the diseased aortic segment and reliably prevents aneurysm rupture. However, these operations also carry substantial risk of perioperative morbidity and mortality, principally caused by the associated ischemic insult involving the spinal cord, kidneys, and other abdominal viscera. Here, we describe the early outcomes of a contemporary series of open TAAA repairs.
Methods: We reviewed the outcomes of 823 open TAAA repairs performed between January 2005 and May 2012. Of these, 209 (25.4%) were Crawford extent I repairs, 264 (32.1%) were extent II, 157 (19.1%) were extent III, and 193 (23.5%) were extent IV. Aortic dissection was present in 350 (42.5%) cases, and aneurysm rupture was present in 37 (4.5%). Adjuncts used during the procedures included cerebrospinal fluid drainage in 639 (77.6%) cases, left heart bypass in 430 (52.2%), and cold renal perfusion in 674 (81.9%).
Results: The composite endpoint, adverse outcome—defined as operative death, renal failure that necessitated dialysis at discharge, stroke, or permanent paraplegia or paraparesis—occurred after 131 (15.9%) procedures. There were 69 (8.4%) operative deaths. Permanent paraplegia or paraparesis occurred after 42 (5.1%) cases, stroke occurred after 27 (3.3%), and renal failure necessitating permanent dialysis occurred after 45 (5.5%).
Conclusions: Although open surgical repair of the thoracoabdominal aorta can be life-saving to patients at risk for fatal aneurysm rupture, these operations remain challenging and are associated with substantial risk of early death and major complications. Additional improvements are needed to further reduce the risks associated with TAAA repair, particularly as increasing numbers of patients with advanced age and multiple or severe comorbidities present for treatment.