Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support in pediatrics
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a general term that describes the short- or long-term support of the heart and/or lungs in neonates, children and adults. Due to favourable results and a steady decline in absolute contraindications, its use is increasing worldwide. Indications in children differ from those in adults. The ECMO circuit as well as cannulation strategies also are individualized, considering their implications in children. The aim of this article is to review the clinical indications, different circuits, and cannulation strategies for ECMO. We also present our institutional experience with 92 pediatric ECMO patients (34 neonates, 58 pediatric) with the majority (80%) of veno-arterial placements between 2014 until 2018. We further to also highlight ECMO use in the setting of cardiac arrest [extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) or eCPR].