Surgical management for mechanical complications of acute myocardial infarction: a systematic review of long-term outcomes
Background: Mechanical complications following acute myocardial infarction (AMI), though rare, are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Surgical management remains a mainstay of therapy for these complications. The purpose of this review is to evaluate long-term outcomes data of surgical management for postinfarction free wall rupture, ventricular septal defect, papillary muscle rupture, and pseudoaneurysm.
Methods: An electronic literature search was performed to identify original studies reporting long-term outcomes data of surgical management of one of the four mechanical complications following AMI. Studies were considered to have long-term outcomes if they at minimum included survival or mortality data up to one year.
Results: A total of 285 studies were identified from the literature search. Of these, 29 studies with long-term survival data on surgically managed mechanical complications of AMI are included in the review. The majority of these are retrospective cohort studies or single-center case series. Five studies are included on free wall rupture, 18 on ventricular septal defect, 4 on papillary muscle rupture, and 2 on pseudoaneurysm. Detailed results are tabulated according to complication.
Conclusions: Long-term surgical outcomes of postinfarction mechanical complications remain understudied. Outcomes for ventricular septal defect repair are better represented in the literature than are outcomes for other mechanical complications, though available studies are still limited by small sample sizes and retrospective design. Further research is warranted, particularly for outcomes of acute pseudoaneurysm repair.